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被生態環境部點名的高通量、高內涵檢測和篩選技術是什么?

2022-08-26 11:21:30來源:環保在線 閱讀量:39943

導讀:在剛剛舉行的8月例行新聞發布會上,生態環境部提到高通量虛擬篩選技術原理、體外高通量和高內涵靶向測試方法原理研究,這是什么?
  在剛剛舉行的8月例行新聞發布會上,生態環境部提到,隨著污染防治攻堅戰的深入推進,一些新問題逐漸凸現,迫切需要在基礎應用研究方面進行一批前瞻性布局,其中就包括以計算毒理學為基礎的高通量虛擬篩選技術原理、體外高通量和高內涵靶向測試方法原理研究。
 
  什么是高通量虛擬篩選技術?
 
  什么是體外高通量測試?
 
  什么是高內涵靶向測試?
 
  本文就簡單帶你了解一下。
 
  HTS和HTVS
 
  高通量篩選(HTS)技術是指以分子水平和細胞水平的實驗方法為基礎,以微板形式作為實驗工具載體,以自動化操作系統執行試驗過程,以靈敏快速的檢測儀器采集實驗結果數據,以計算機分析處理實驗數據,在同一時間檢測數以千萬的樣品,并以得到的相應數據庫支持運轉的技術體系。
 
  從其定義中也能看到,這種技術總結起來就是“多、快、靈、準”,高度自動化更是讓其有了更大的實用價值。目前,FLIPR熒光檢測法、AlphaScreen檢測法都是國際上較為常用的檢測方法。
 
  了解到HTS技術的優勢,也要看到HTS技術面臨的局限性,這也是高通量虛擬篩選(HTVS)誕生的意義。比如,當100萬個甚至1000萬個化合物進入了HTVS篩查,就可能會形成一個包含千種或者萬種化合物的子集,相當于在虛擬實驗中進行了初篩,由此顯然能極大提高效率。
 
  此前就由研究團隊利用HTVS技術加速發現了二氧化碳(CO2)捕集能力優異的MOFs,并證明和提出了吸附量和選擇性的權衡變量與MOFs結構參數的強相關性。
 
  高通量檢測與測序
 
  高通量檢測技術一次可檢測多個樣品或對同一樣品進行多種檢測,高分辨率質譜技術、生物芯片及生物傳感器技術、可視化快速檢測技術等目前都是較為常用的類別。其中,高分辨率質譜技術又可細化為飛行時間質譜(TOF MS)分析技術、靜電場軌道阱質譜(Orbitrap MS)、實時直接分析(DART),生物芯片及生物傳感器技術可細化為蛋白芯片技術、懸浮芯片技術(SAT)和表面等離子共振(SPR)生物傳感器技術等。
 
  目前,高通量檢測技術已經用于核酸檢測中,其對于病毒檢測、霉菌毒素檢測、藥物殘留檢測等均有很大的應用價值,針對性的高通量檢測儀器儀表產品也在不斷迭代中。
 
  高通量測序,能夠一次并行對大量核酸分子進行平行序列測定的技術,通常一次測序反應能產出不低于100Mb的測序數據。業界評價,高通量測序技術是對傳統測序一次革命性的改變,所以也被稱為“下一代測序技術”,主要有大規模平行簽名測序(MPSS)、聚合酶克隆、454焦磷酸測序、Illumina (Solexa) sequencing、ABI SOLiD sequencing、離子半導體測序、DNA 納米球測序 、聯合探針錨定合成測序法(cPAS)等。
 
  高內涵篩選(HCS)
 
  HCS技術是為尋找先導物針對大量樣品進行藥理活性評價分析的一種技術手段,基于細胞的HCS技術實現了對化合物多靶點多參數的同時檢測,可以用來確定生物活性和潛在毒性。HCS技術與HTS技術各有千秋,HCS技術能確保高通量研究所需的自由度,應用廣泛且靈活。就毒理學研究來說,HCS技術算得上是細胞表型篩選利器。
 
  綜合上述“技術貼”,前沿研究方向相當針對病理和毒性研究,這對目前的環境檢測領域來說是不小的挑戰。但無論是醫療廢棄物、醫療廢水、工業廢棄物&工業廢水,或者危險廢棄物及“毒地”污染治理,還是新污染物防控,都需要更高效、精準、快捷的檢測手段,這也依賴于高端科學儀器儀表的發展。
 

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