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環評怎么做?專家來解讀丨某產業園區規劃環評大氣環境影響評價

2022-08-26 11:13:53來源:環境影響評價網 閱讀量:12890

導讀:該產業園區規劃環評大氣環境影響評價思路較清晰,基礎工作扎實,結論可信,對園區產業的規模調整、結構優化和污染治理等具有較強指導性。
  環境影響評價是生態環境源頭預防制度體系的重要一環,歷經多年探索與實踐,在園區、礦產、能源、水利、交通、石化、冶金等領域,優布局、調結構、控規模、順時序、強措施,對于推動相關規劃的優化調整以及建設項目的高水平準入發揮了重要作用,累積了大量經驗和優秀案例。
 
  案例二:某產業園區規劃環評大氣環境影響評價
 
  一、產業園區區位特點
 
  該產業園區為國家級經濟技術開發區,經過近30年的發展,現狀形成了以有色金屬、電子機械為主導的產業結構。園區產業發展規劃(2021-2035年)提出,規劃期將大力發展電解鋁、再生鋁、陽極碳素及鋁材高精深加工產業。但園區緊鄰規劃中心城區,周邊分布有國家級風景名勝區、省級自然保護區等環境敏感區,區域大氣環境敏感、保護要求高。
 
  二、重要生態環境制約因素識別
 
  區域大氣環境質量現狀良好,近五年環境空氣質量均滿足二級標準。園區現狀大氣污染物排放主要集中于有色金屬行業,該行業二氧化硫、顆粒物、氮氧化物等污染物排放量占比均超過75%。本輪規劃提出,電解鋁產能計劃大幅增加,并配套陽極碳素項目。規劃發展的主導產業有色金屬屬于“兩高”類,污染物排放量和能源消耗量大,規劃實施的環境制約因素突出。
 
  既要守住區域大氣環境質量目標底線,又要合理科學謀劃園區發展,指導園區在區域環境可承載的前提下,合理確定產業規模和結構,并提出針對性的保護要求和措施,是本規劃環評的重點和難點所在。
 
  三、大氣環境影響評價思路及主要內容
 
  規劃環評過程中各方充分互動,關停淘汰區域落后產能、夯實區域減排量,推動現有電解鋁產業升級改造、大力削減存量,加嚴排放標準、嚴格控制增量,結合大氣環境影響預測評價,提出了規劃產業規模和結構等對策建議。
 
  (一)識別關鍵因素,合理設置規劃情景
 
  通過對規劃產業定位、規模、開發時序及配套基礎設施等內容分析,識別出規劃的產業規模,尤其是電解鋁和陽極碳素的規模是影響區域大氣環境質量的核心因素。結合園區產業發展現狀及后續安排,以電解鋁和陽極碳素規模逐步壓減為前提,分別設置了規劃情景、優化情景1和優化情景2等三個規劃發展情景。其中,規劃情景下,電解鋁和陽極碳素規模較現狀分別新增近2倍和6倍;優化情景1,取消陽極碳素定位,壓減40%的新增電解鋁規模;優化情景2,在取消陽極碳素定位的同時,壓減60%的新增電解鋁規模。
 
  (二)削減存量,控制增量,確保增產減污
 
  一是推動升級改造,大力削減存量。現狀電解鋁企業按超低排放要求進行提標改造,關停現有陽極碳素項目,同時對區域陶瓷、磚瓦等行業進行優化提升,區域二氧化硫、氮氧化物和顆粒物年排放量可分別削減2149t/a、525t/a和496t/a。推動解決現有生態環境問題的同時,為規劃實施騰出環境容量。
 
  二是加嚴排放標準,嚴格控制增量。規劃新增電解鋁項目同步提標至超低排放標準。園區電解鋁用電堅持“全水電”原則,與地方水電公司簽署直供協議,不再新建自備電廠。
 
  三是嚴守底線原則,實現增產減污。本次評價將二氧化硫、氮氧化物和顆粒物在規劃情景、優化情景1和優化情景2三個情景下的年排放量作為壓力指標,分別核算了各污染物增量。結果表明,規劃情景下氮氧化物和顆粒物大幅度增加,優化情景1和優化情景2可實現減污目標,因此將為優化情景1和優化情景2作為備選情景(表1)。
 
表1 各情景下污染物排放壓力指標響應分析表
 

 

  (三)優化產業結構和規模,推動區域環境質量改善
 
  采用大氣導則推薦的CALPUFF模型對各情景的主要污染物規劃新增排放量、削減排放量的年均濃度貢獻值進行了預測,將區域環境質量改善作為約束指標,建立基于“排放源-環境質量”的響應關系。
 
  以細顆粒物為例,各情景下的最大落地年均濃度貢獻值如圖1-圖3所示。
 

 

  可見,經過對電解鋁和鋁用碳素規模的逐步壓減,細顆粒物的影響范圍和程度均相應縮減。通過疊加區域削減源,在規劃電解鋁項目達產后,優化情景1下,細顆粒物最大落地年均濃度滿足生態環境分區管控確定的區域大氣環境目標,但不能實現區域環境質量不下降的環境目標底線;優化情景2下,細顆粒物最大落地年均濃度滿足區域大氣環境質量改善目標要求。同時,優化情景2下,疊加區域削減量以后,周邊風景名勝區和自然保護區的各類大氣污染物最大落地濃度日均值和年均值均有不同程度的改善。基于以上預測評價結果,規劃環評將優化情景2作為最終推薦情景。
 
  (四)明確優化調整建議,切實發揮規劃環評作用。
 
  基于區域環境質量改善目標要求,結合電解鋁和鋁用碳素不同規模情景的大氣預測,在推動解決現有環境問題的同時,提出了現有產業淘汰落后及升級要求,以及大幅優化規劃“兩高”產業規模和結構的建議,通過充分互動,最終在規劃中得到落實。
 
  四、專家點評
 
  該產業園區規劃環評的大氣環境影響評價有三個顯著特點:
 
  一是基礎工作扎實充分,現狀調查全面細致。評價詳細調查了園區有色金屬、建材等重點行業所有企業的生產現狀、污染治理水平、資源能源利用情況,以及區域環境敏感區和環境質量現狀等情況;與地方生態環境、發改、經信、園區管理機構等部門就規劃目標等的對接交流細致充分。上述基礎工作為淘汰落后、提升存量的精準施策,以及評價預測情景的高效設置奠定了良好基礎。
 
  二是圍繞區域環境質量不下降的總體目標,把握了規劃評價的底線原則。針對園區所在區域大氣環境質量現狀良好,且周邊分布有自然保護區、風景名勝區等重要環境敏感區的特點,從淘汰落后、提升存量、嚴控增量等角度出發,開展了評價論證,并進行充分互動,指導園區在區域環境可承載的前提下,優化調整產業規模和結構,實現綠色發展。
 
  三是規劃評價情景設置針對性較強,情景設置與污染排放、環境目標、優化建議之間的邏輯關系較強。建立的“規劃方案-環境目標-優化調整”鏈條清晰,通過設置不同情景,定量預測評價了大氣影響,分析了不同情景下的環境質量目標可達性,科學支撐了規劃決策。
 
  總體上,本園區規劃環評大氣環境影響評價思路較清晰,基礎工作扎實,結論可信,對園區產業的規模調整、結構優化和污染治理等具有較強指導性。
 
  原標題:環評怎么做?專家來解讀(2)

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