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生態環境部關負責人就《長江流域總磷污染控制方案編制指南》答記者問

2022-08-25 14:30:00來源:生態環境部 閱讀量:14384

導讀:日前,生態環境部印發《長江流域總磷污染控制方案編制指南》,明確總磷污染控制方案主要包括總則、成效和問題、總磷污染控制目標、主要任務、主要任務清單及進度安排、保障措施等六方面,以加快長江流域生態環境保護。
  近日,生態環境部印發了《長江流域總磷污染控制方案編制指南》(以下簡稱《編制指南》),生態環境部水生態環境司有關負責人就《編制指南》有關問題回答了記者的提問。
 
  問:為什么要出臺《編制指南》?
 
  答:黨中央、國務院高度重視長江流域生態環境保護工作。習近平總書記先后三次親自主持召開全面推動長江經濟帶發展座談會,強調要把修復長江生態環境擺在壓倒性位置,共抓大保護,不搞大開發。近年來,總磷已經成為長江流域首要污染物。“十三五”時期,各地雖然開展了一系列總磷污染控制工作,但“三磷”(磷礦、磷化工企業、磷石膏庫)污染問題未從根本解決,長江干流多處出現總磷局部高值,不少斷面汛期污染強度較高,流域總磷污染控制依然任重道遠。
 
  2021年3月1日,《中華人民共和國長江保護法》正式實施,要求長江流域省級人民政府制定本行政區域的總磷污染控制方案,并組織實施。為貫徹落實《中華人民共和國長江保護法》,指導長江流域各省份制定實施本行政區域總磷污染控制方案,生態環境部在深入開展調研、廣泛征求意見的基礎上,編制印發《長江流域總磷污染控制方案編制指南》,對方案編制原則、范圍與時限、總磷污染控制目標和主要任務等作了進一步明確細化,指導各地因地制宜推進總磷污染控制工作,推動長江流域水生態環境持續改善。
 
  問:總磷污染控制方案的編制原則是什么?
 
  答:一是堅持問題導向。堅持以水生態環境質量改善為核心,精準識別流域總磷污染問題及癥結所在,綜合考慮各地自然條件、工作基礎和社會經濟發展水平差異,因地制宜提出總磷污染控制目標及實現路徑。二是堅持系統治理。方案編制要與“十四五”重點流域水生態環境保護規劃相銜接,將總磷污染控制與“三磷”綜合整治、農業面源污染治理與監督指導、入河排污口監督管理等工作系統推進,發揮協同增效作用。三是堅持責任明晰。明確責任分工、注重協調聯動,將目標和任務落實到責任單位,壓實相關地方、部門和企業總磷污染防治責任,確保總磷污染控制可監測、可統計、可考核。
 
  問:總磷污染控制方案應包括哪些主要內容?
 
  答:總磷污染控制方案主要包括總則、成效和問題、總磷污染控制目標、主要任務、主要任務清單及進度安排、保障措施等六方面。一是確立了各省份總磷污染控制方案的編制原則,強調問題導向、系統治理和責任明晰;二是明確了方案的主要內容,要求在全面總結“十三五”總磷污染控制成效與經驗的基礎上,系統分析行政區域內總磷污染問題及成因,結合水質改善需求和減排潛力,科學確定總磷污染控制目標,提出主要任務及保障措施,做好任務分解和分年度進度安排;三是提出了總磷污染控制實現路徑,包括工業污染治理、面源污染治理、生活污染治理、流域生態保護及內源污染治理、入河排污口排查整治等方面,注重提煉總磷污染控制重點工程并持續推進,對重點項目清單給出了具體要求。
 
  問:總磷污染控制目標如何確定?
 
  答:《編制指南》要求,總磷污染控制目標要以改善水生態環境質量為核心,充分銜接“十四五”重點流域水生態環境保護規劃、農業農村污染治理攻堅戰行動方案(2021—2025年)及“十四五”土壤、地下水和農村生態環境保護規劃目標任務,結合區域“三線一單”生態環境分區管控要求,依據可監測、可統計、可考核的原則合理確定。
 
  各地應在“十四五”國控斷面水質目標基礎上,結合總磷本底值及上游入境斷面總磷濃度,進一步細化分解總磷水質控制目標,依據實際需求制定省控、市控、縣控斷面總磷水質目標。總磷減排目標需充分考慮各地水質和水生態安全需求,在行政區域內工業、農業、生活各類污染減排潛力測算基礎上,扣除總磷預期新增排放量后統籌確定。
 
  問:總磷污染控制有哪些可行的實現路徑?
 
  答:《編制指南》結合“十三五”總磷污染控制經驗及目前存在問題,聚焦“三磷”污染治理、農業面源治理與監督指導和入河排污口監督管理等總磷污染控制重點領域,提出了磷礦和磷化工產業升級、磷石膏庫生態修復和綜合利用、農副食品加工等重點行業污染深度治理及回用、工業園區管網建設改造、化肥農藥減量增效、初期雨水收集處理、汛期污染強度管理、城鎮及農村生活污水收集及處理能力建設、人工濕地水質凈化工程建設、環保清淤等內源污染治理、入河排污口排查整治等總磷污染控制路徑,指導各地綜合運用工程、政策、技術等措施,確保完成總磷污染控制目標任務。
 
  問:我國各地情況不同,地方在制定總磷污染控制方案時,如何做到因地制宜?
 
  答:《編制指南》明確要求,總磷污染控制方案應堅持問題導向和目標導向,系統分析行政區域內總磷污染狀況、污染源情況,識別重點問題,深入分析原因,立足各地發展實際,結合水生態環境質量改善需求和減排潛力,因地制宜確定總磷污染控制目標及實現路徑,不搞一刀切,不搞形式主義,既盡力而為,又量力而行,制定科學合理的總磷污染控制方案。
 
  編輯 | 尚玉
 
  原標題:生態環境部水生態環境司有關負責人就《長江流域總磷污染控制方案編制指南》答記者問

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