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專家解讀丨加快建立統一規范的碳排放統計核算體系 以高質量數據支撐“雙碳”目標實現

2022-08-22 09:45:25來源:生態環境部應對氣候變化司 閱讀量:15948

導讀:《實施方案》的發布和落實,將有力推動我國碳排放統計核算體系進一步完善,統計基礎更加扎實,核算方法更加科學,技術手段更加先進,核算數據更加全面、科學和可靠。
  碳排放統計核算是一項重要的基礎性工作,為科學制定國家政策、評估考核工作進展、參與國際談判履約等提供必要的數據依據。《中共中央國務院關于完整準確全面貫徹新發展理念做好碳達峰碳中和工作的意見》和《2030年前碳達峰行動方案》提出要建立統一規范的碳排放統計核算體系。為貫徹落實黨中央、國務院部署,近日國家發展改革委、國家統計局、生態環境部印發《關于加快建立統一規范的碳排放統計核算體系實施方案》(以下簡稱《實施方案》),系統部署我國碳排放統計核算體系建設的重點任務。
 
  一、我國碳排放統計核算工作基礎
 
  為滿足應對氣候變化國際履約要求,支撐實現我國提出的控制溫室氣體排放行動目標,我國在國家、地區、企業、項目和產品碳排放統計核算層面開展了大量工作,取得了積極成效。
 
  一是定期編制更新溫室氣體清單,為我國完成各項履約任務提供基本保障。自2000年以來,為做好應對氣候變化履約工作,我國初步建立了國家溫室氣體清單編制的工作體系和技術方法體系。經國務院批準,我國分別于2004、2012、2017和2019年,以中國政府名義向《聯合國氣候變化框架公約》(以下簡稱《公約》)提交了5份國家履約報告,包括1994、2005、2010、2012和2014年國家溫室氣體清單。最新國家清單涵蓋能源活動,工業生產過程,農業活動,土地利用、土地利用變化和林業(LULUCF)以及廢棄物處理等5個領域的溫室氣體排放和吸收匯情況,涉及二氧化碳、甲烷、氧化亞氮、氫氟碳化物、全氟碳化物、六氟化硫等6類氣體。國家清單編制遵循國際通行規則,符合《公約》相關決議要求,基礎參數主要來自官方統計以及專項調研和實測。我國履約報告接受了多次《公約》秘書處組織的國際磋商和分析,清單質量得到國際專家認可。
 
  二是形成碳排放強度指標核算發布機制,為實現國家自主貢獻目標提供有力支撐。從“十二五”時期起,我國逐步建立和完善應對氣候變化統計指標體系和溫室氣體排放基礎統計制度。根據全國及各省(區、市)分品種能源消費量及其相應排放因子開展碳排放強度核算工作,核算結果為編制國家履約報告,開展國家和地方碳排放強度控制目標進展評估、考核、形勢分析等工作提供了保障。此外,我國還印發了省級溫室氣體清單編制指南,對地方開展清單編制培訓,先后組織31個省(自治區、直轄市)開展2005、2010、2012和2014年清單編制和清單質量聯審工作,目前部分地區已實現連續年度的清單編制。
 
  三是建立重點行業企業碳排放核算報告核查制度,為啟動全國碳排放權交易市場奠定堅實基礎。陸續發布24個行業企業溫室氣體排放核算方法與報告指南,其中11個轉化成了國家標準,印發和修訂了發電設施核算指南,組織開展電力、鋼鐵、水泥等重點排放行業企業2013—2021年碳排放核算報告工作。先后分12批共備案200個項目碳減排核算方法學,支持了1300多個溫室氣體自愿減排項目注冊。為提高數據質量,上述重點排放行業企業(包括全國碳市場納入的2000多家火電企業)的碳排放報告以及溫室氣體自愿減排項目的減排量還經過了第三方機構核查。此外,一些地區和機構發布了產品碳足跡核算的地方標準和團體標準,規范了企業碳足跡核算。
 
  四是初步建立了人才隊伍和支撐平臺,為我國應對氣候變化能力水平提升注入動力。在歷次國家清單編制過程中,我國建立了由主管部門和有關研究機構人員構成的國家清單編制工作團隊,承擔應對氣候變化國內履約、清單編制等方面研究和技術支持工作。通過開展多輪地方清單能力建設,先后組織4個年度省級清單編制和聯審,培養了一批地方清單編制管理和技術人員。通過組織開展重點排放單位碳排放數據核算報告核查,提升了企業碳核算能力以及配套的核查和監管水平。通過實施《京都議定書》清潔發展機制(CDM)和溫室氣體自愿減排交易機制,培育了一批專業的減排項目碳核算咨詢機構。我國還建立了企業碳排放數據報送系統和國家溫室氣體清單數據庫,用信息化手段支撐碳排放數據的報送、核算、審核以及分析管理。
 
  二、我國碳排放統計核算工作展望
 
  在國內外新形勢下,國內“雙碳”目標和其他應對氣候變化工作以及《巴黎協定》下強化的透明度框架對碳排放統計核算數據的準確性、及時性、一致性、可比性和透明性等提出更高需求。大型跨國公司從供應鏈及生命周期角度對產品碳核算產生倒逼效應,原有的碳排放統計核算體系面臨多重挑戰,亟需堅持問題導向,盡快健全完善。
 
  一是進一步理順碳排放統計核算的工作機制。《實施方案》明確了“十四五”時期全國及地方、行業企業、產品碳核算和國家溫室氣體清單編制等重點任務,提出了夯實統計基礎、建立排放因子庫、開展方法學研究、加強組織協調、嚴格數據管理和加強成果應用等具體措施。《實施方案》結合我國已有工作基礎,細化了各部門在不同環節的職責分工,有利于強化碳排放統計核算工作的統一領導、發揮部門合力,確保不同層級碳核算數據流通順暢、結果有機銜接。
 
  二是推動實現國家溫室氣體清單常態化編制和定期更新。基于我國基礎統計數據可獲得性,參考發達國家經驗,采用與國際接軌方法逐步實現時效性強的國家清單編制,并及時對往年國家清單開展回算,確保具有長時間序列、一致可比的國家清單數據。為滿足部門行業碳達峰工作需要,同步探索開展碳達峰部門行業口徑的清單編制。基于國家清單編制進展,更新完善省級清單指南,鼓勵有條件地區參照國家做法編制省級清單。隨著企業和設施排放數據的不斷豐富和完善,其在清單中的應用將逐步擴大。與此同時,將同步做好清單同國家和地區碳核算數據的銜接。
 
  三是進一步提升行業企業碳排放數據質量。結合已有行業企業實踐經驗,統籌兼顧準確性、可操作性以及監管成本等多個維度,制修訂企業以及設施溫室氣體排放核算方法指南標準,逐步建立完善企業溫室氣體報告制度。不斷強化行業企業碳排放數據的日常監管,加強碳排放核查以及第三方審定與核證機構的監督管理,加大對控排企業碳排放數據質量的監督執法力度,對數據造假等行為加大處罰力度,筑牢行業企業碳排放數據質量基石。
 
  四是有序開展重點產品碳排放核算。產品碳核算涉及產品生產上下游,依賴于扎實的行業企業碳核算以及區域清單基礎。《實施方案》明確了突出重點、梯次推進的工作節奏,聚焦于重點行業的原材料、半成品和成品,再逐步擴展至其他行業產品和服務類產品。研究制定重點產品碳排放核算方法,推動出臺相關標準,指導企業和第三方機構開展產品碳排放核算。在完善產品碳核算基礎上,探索建立碳標簽制度體系,引導消費者選擇低排放產品和服務,倒逼全產業鏈減排。
 
  五是不斷夯實工作基礎。我國將進一步完善現有的基礎統計制度,包括新增統計指標,細化統計分類,提高有關統計工作時效性。加強我國關鍵排放源特征參數統計調查和排放因子定期監測,結合全國碳市場企業數據報送,建立我國官方權威的排放因子數據庫,為不同層級碳核算提供技術參數,降低碳核算成本并提高核算的準確性。建設全國碳市場一體化管理平臺,打破數據孤島、打通融合現有數據系統、增強業務數據共享,給全國碳市場建設提供有力支撐,提升碳排放數據的日常管理能力和信息化水平。探索衛星遙感等大尺度高精度監測手段的應用,支持開展大氣溫室氣體濃度反演排放量模式等研究。
 
  加快建立統一規范的碳排放統計核算體系,是貫徹落實黨中央、國務院關于碳達峰碳中和工作部署,統籌支撐國內“雙碳”目標實現和國際履約工作的重要手段。《實施方案》的發布和落實,將有力推動我國碳排放統計核算體系進一步完善,統計基礎更加扎實,核算方法更加科學,技術手段更加先進,核算數據更加全面、科學和可靠。
 
  作者: 馬翠梅、蘇明山(國家氣候戰略中心)
 
  原標題:專家解讀丨加快建立統一規范的碳排放統計核算體系 以高質量數據支撐“雙碳”目標實現

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1.交流電壓50~750V(量程用PT可擴大)
2.交流電流0.5~600A(量程用CT可擴大)
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